Time demands renovation and constant upgrades of social patterns and systems. It is our conscious effort to align ourselves with the needs of the current time to sustain ourselves for the future. At this critical juncture, education plays a pivotal role in shaping the voices of our nation. To understand the necessity of education, one should consider the development of skills for their career and the ability of critical thinking.

The period of globalization demands our education to prepare the students with the right potential and strength to take care of the duties of the economy. Globalization is not just the operation of business around the world. It has a far wider sense to it. Business Outreach Magazine welcomes our readers to consider our ‘Free Subscription’ where we give you all the latest news and updates about businesses and industry. 

The term ‘Globalization’ can be a joint presentation of several complex socio-economic matters draped with culture and communication. Our society is dependent on each other and our heritage and perspective towards life cater to our interaction with each other. In India, the history of education dates back several thousand years. The term ‘gurukul’ or school allowed students to stay at the house of the teacher and learn new information. 

The rising concern about the Indian education system- 

People from around the world were attracted to Indian education. But the Renaissance and breakthroughs in innovation that occurred in Europe did not occur in India. It was during a time when the East India Company or the British raj took over the proceedings of the Indian system. 

The education system in India got severely affected due to uncertain times. But gradually, the British imparted their system of education in India, which it perceives to this day in the most sense. When looking at the current situation of the Indian education system, requires several reforms and innovations. 

In 2022, the literacy rate of India is about 77.7% according to the report of the National Survey of India. In 2011, the literacy rate was about 73% and we can see that the increase is not that significant. Kerala is the state with the highest literacy rate followed by Delhi, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu. Bihar stands as the state with the lowest literacy rate.

From the current reports, we do see that the literacy rate has increased. But the male and female literacy rate needs more attention and the gap requires effort to come to similar figures. Between 2001 to 2011, the literacy rate of men rose by about 6%, whereas the literacy rate of women grew by about 12%. In Bihar, female literacy was about 33% in 2001 and impressively increased to about 53% in 2011

But according to UNESCO, India is still behind the literacy rate by about 86.3% (2015). Several Indian states are at about 64.8% from previous reports. When we look at the structure of the Indian education system, the pre-primary is between 5 to 6 years of age followed by the Elementary level of 6 to 14 years and that is committed by the Constitution of India under Article  21A. 

This has been further backed by Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan under the act of Right to Education. The secondary level comes after the primary or elementary level which is for students between 14 to 18 years of age. This level is extended by the Indian Government with Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan.    

Reforms in the structure of education- 

For higher education levels like undergraduate, post-graduation, MPhil, and Ph.D., the Rashtriya Uchhattar Shiksha Abhiyan is formulated by the Government of India. The authorities were instrumental in providing a free education system to the children. But every process takes time and the system got integrated at a later time than expected.

The Indian education system seems to come with shortcomings when it comes to maintaining the deserved natural order. Since the teacher-to-student ratio is concerning, the dropout rates have increased over the years. The Government of India has been providing funds for education but needs more attention when it comes to infrastructure and innovation. There are several IIMs and IITs in our country which are regarded as one of the top institutions of our nation. But these institutions are still not making it to the world ranking of universities.

The free education provided by the Indian Government is coming with a lot of challenges. There is still a lack of funding that should ensure the future of our students. We have to take into consideration that students and young learners are the future of our nation. They will be responsible for the development of our economy and ensure India stays a powerful voice in the world order. 

The no-detention policy set by the Indian government has reduced the retention rate of students. But it also poses a question regarding the learning capability of students and how they might perform in a competitive field since there is no formal exam required till class 8. 

There have been several reforms in modern education over decades as structured by the Indian Government. The University Education Commission was created by Radhakrishnan in 1948-1949. The system was formed in a way to tailor the academic needs of independent India. This committee replaced the colonial system of education and imparted values and wisdom in learning coupled with leadership training and recognizing the importance of social order through education. 

The Kothari Commission well drafted the impeccable structure of the Indian education system in the form of 10+2+3. The commission also presented the need for work experience to contribute to the social structure and economy of the country. Every learner should have equal opportunities and there should be no forms of discrimination when it comes to education. The commission proposed to provide 6% of GDP to education from the then 2.9% in 1985

Education in India also is moving in a direction where students should be given more choices of modules and electives. A standardized mode of the rigid system will not do for every mind. Instead of rote learning, the curriculum should be focused more on skills and industry-related concepts. 

The shortage of qualified teachers has been a major blow to the education system in India. Although the school infrastructure requires upgradation, quality teachers guide students towards excellence. The economy and culture of India should look forward to skill-based and divert from marks based. 

We are living in an age where education is free from the advent of the internet. More focus should be given to practical training. Technology is very essential for the classroom of the current times. If teacher training is imparted with dedication, the quality of the education gets uplifted which further adds to improving accessibility to studies. Along with these, technology-backed classrooms come out to be more interactive for the learners. 

Imparting technology- 

The National Education Technology Forum has been set up to create the proper delivery of technology resources and tools to our schools and educational institutions. In India, reports suggest that only 5% of professionals receive vocational education. In the USA, the number is about 52%, and about 96% in South Korea. The Government of India has formed the National Policy on Skills Development and Entrepreneurship in 2015 to ensure that students receive at least one vocational course in classes between 9 to 12

There are some daunting figures when it comes to illiteracy among adults who are from 15 years and above. These sections of society are directly responsible for carrying out the sustainability of India. The report from 2011 suggested that about 26.5 crore adults are not literate. Remarkable efforts are being made by the Indian Government in setting up adult learning centers on school premises which are backed by tutors to support the program. 

In India, the Gross Enrollment Ratio in advanced education is just 24.5%. There are multiple verticals in the Indian education system that are disoriented at administrative levels. Due to the constant need for upgradation, the quality and the quantity are getting hampered leading to a gap in learning.

India underspends on sectors like research and development which is leading to a crisis for the upcoming generation of scientists and innovators. The idea should be focused on adding value through research and not just presenting a dissertation.  

As a country, India has had countless scholars and researchers for decades. But the current system is plagued with poor vigilance of expert supervision. Students are missing out on the skills and there are fewer philanthropic contributions to the sector. As a result, the burden to improve the education system in India is falling completely on government initiatives and capital.  

The history of education in India has had glorifying achievements in the past. But due to several operational crises, the effective structure has encountered multiple blowbacks. Still standing at the current time, the lack of funding from the Government has hindered the strengthening of infrastructure. 

Some Key Takeaways- 

The prompt functioning of a well-adjusted mechanism is still too much to ask from the states and things are taking a thought-provoking turn. Students of India deserve the original stature of education that India once had. But modified and catered according to the current demands of the skill-oriented job market

Although girl education has received improvements over the years, the overall illiteracy rate is still monumental compared to other countries like China. The dropout rates are high among boys, who are facing several economic challenges along with declining interest and motivation in education. 

There is still a concept of elitism when it comes to quality education. Primary education which forms the superstructure of a learner’s abilities is not strengthened when compared to higher education. There have been several defects in providing training to teachers along with problems like social discrimination, and bureaucracy.

The accountability towards the future of a child for a teacher in a government school is shaky and should be worked upon. The result is low employable skills for the learners and the country is getting a hit due to this. But reforms should be encouraged as it gives a light of faith towards development. The Indian Government is doing its part which could take some time. But we as responsible citizens hold the key to limitless possibilities.